From Appalachian State University Policy Manual
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Scope
- 3 Definitions
- 4 Policy and Procedure Statements
- 4.1 Background
- 4.2 Lockout or Tagout
- 4.3 Responsibility
- 4.4 Preparation for Lockout and/or Tagout
- 4.5 Restoring Machinery or Equipment to Normal Operations
- 4.6 Lockout and/or Tagout Procedures Involving More Than One Person/Group Lockout, Tagout Procedures
- 4.7 Lockout and/or Tagout Procedures Involving Shift or Personnel Changes
- 4.8 Emergency Removal of Personal Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) Device(s)
- 4.9 Annual Lockout and/or Tagout Procedure Review (Inspections)
- 4.10 Contractors
- 5 Additional References
- 6 Authority
- 7 Contact Information
- 8 Original Effective Date
- 9 Revision Dates
1.1 This procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the lockout and/or tagout of electrical disconnects, liquid, gas and steam valves, hydraulic/pneumatic systems or other energy sources. It shall be used to ensure that machines or equipment are stopped and isolated from all potentially hazardous energy sources, and locked out and/or tagged out before employees perform any servicing or maintenance activities where the unexpected start-up or release of stored energy could cause injury.
2.1 This procedure applies whenever an employee is servicing or provides maintenance to machinery or equipment in a manner which requires the removal or bypass of guards or other safety devices or in a manner that requires an employee to place any part of his or her body into an area on a machine or piece of equipment where work is actually performed upon the material being processed (point of operation) or where an associated danger zone exists during a machine operating cycle, or in a manner that otherwise exposes the employee to electrical, mechanical, gas, liquid or steam hazards in the event the machinery or equipment or system is accidently re-energized during maintenance or service work. Typical operations covered include, but are not necessarily limited to:
- Work on electric motors and circuits
- Work on steam lines and boilers
- Work on refrigeration and air conditioning equipment
- Work on LP gas lines
- Work on permanently wired machinery or equipment including ovens
- Work on wood planners, radial saws or other shop and laboratory equipment
- Work on pressurized liquid or chemical lines
- Work on compressed air or gas (chemical) lines
- Work on hydraulic/pneumatic systems
- Work on elevators/hoists
2.2 Employees authorized to Lockout and/or Tagout after receiving appropriate training in the appropriate lockout and/or tagout procedures include:
- Art Department Laboratory Manager
- ASU Physical Plant - Mechanical Shop, Electrical Shop, Steam Plant, Telecommunications/Electronics Shop, Carpentry Shop employees
- Housing Department Maintenance employees
- Food Service Maintenance employees
- Student Union Maintenance employees
- Broyhill Inn & Conference Center Maintenance employees
- Technology Department Electronics Technician
- Outside Vendors and Contractors approved and assisted by Physical Plant Employees
3.1 Affected Employee
- An employee whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout and/or tagout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
3.2 Authorized Employee
- A person who locks out and/or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under this section.
3.3 Capable of Being Locked Out
- An energy isolating device is capable of being locked out if it has a hasp or other means of attachment to which, or through which, a lock can be affixed, or it has a locking mechanism built into it. Other energy isolating devices are capable of being locked out, if lockout can be achieved without the need to dismantle, rebuild, or replace the energy isolating device or permanently alter its energy control capability.
- Connected to an energy source or containing residual or stored energy.
3.5 Energy Isolating Device
- A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to the following: A manually operated electrical circuit breaker; a disconnect switch; a manually operated switch by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply conductors, and, in addition, no pole can be operated independently; a line valve; a block; and any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Push buttons, selector switches and other control circuit type devices are not energy isolating devices.
3.6 Energy Source
- Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.
3.7 Hot Tap
- A procedure used in the repair, maintenance and services activities which involves welding on a piece of equipment (pipelines, vessels or tanks) under pressure, in order to install connections or appurtenances. It is commonly used to replace or add sections of pipeline without the interruption of service for air, gas, water, steam, and petrochemical distribution systems.
- The placement of a lockout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.
3.9 Lockout Device
- A device that utilizes a positive means such as a lock, either key or combination type, to hold an energy isolating device in a safe position and prevent the energizing of a machine or equipment. Included are blank flanges and bolted slip blinds.
3.10 Normal Production Operations
- The utilization of a machine or equipment to perform its intended production function.
3.11 Servicing and/or Maintenance
- Workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, and maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment. These activities include lubrication, cleaning or unjamming of machines or equipment and making adjustments or tool changes, where the employee may be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.
3.12 Setting Up
- Any work performed to prepare a machine or equipment to perform its normal production operation.
- The placement of a tagout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
3.14 Tagout Device
- A prominent warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment, which can be securely fastened to an energy isolating device in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
4 Policy and Procedure Statements
4.1.1 The potential exists for severe injuries to occur when employees perform electrical, mechanical or hydraulic work. Machinery or equipment may start automatically or other energy sources may be active and cause injury. It is of the utmost importance that every employee follows a safe and thorough lockout and/or tagout procedure when working on any electrical, mechanical, hydraulic/pneumatic machinery or equipment or other stored energy system.
4.2 Lockout or Tagout
4.2.1 If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, a tagout procedure shall be utilized.
4.2.2 If an energy isolating device is capable of being locked out, a lockout procedure shall be utilized, unless it can be conclusively demonstrated that the utilization of a tagout procedure will provide full employee protection as required by OSHA regulations, 29 C.F.R. ' 1910.147(c)(3).
4.2.3 Whenever replacement or major repair, renovation or modification of a machine or equipment is performed after January 2, 1990, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed after that date, energy isolating devices for such machine or equipment must be designed to accept a lockout device.
4.3.1 All employees shall be appropriately trained in the appropriate lockout and/or tagout procedures by their supervisor. Each new or transferred employee shall be instructed by their supervisor as to the purpose and use of appropriate lockout and/or tagout procedures. In addition supervisors are responsible for purchasing, training and enforcing the use of the appropriate lockout/tagout equipment as required.
4.3.2 The Supervisor's Lockout and/or Tagout Safety Checklist (See Appendix A) is designed to ensure that all employees who work with electrical, mechanical or hydraulic machinery or equipment, liquid, gas or other energy sources understand and are appropriately trained in lockout and/or tagout procedures. Completed checklist and training forms must be forwarded to Departmental offices for record keeping and retention.
4.3.3 All employees are required to comply with the restrictions and limitations imposed upon them during the use of lockout and/or tagout. The authorized employees are required to perform the lockout and/or tagout in accordance with this procedure. All employees, upon observing a machine or piece of equipment which is locked out and/or tagged out to perform servicing or maintenance shall not attempt to start, energize or use that machine or equipment.
4.3.4 Employees who violate the restrictions and limitations imposed upon them by this procedure shall be subject to discipline or discharge from employment.
4.4 Preparation for Lockout and/or Tagout
4.4.1 Conduct a survey to locate and identify all energy sources to determine which switches, valves or other energy isolating devices apply to machinery or equipment to be locked and/or tagged out. More than one energy source (electrical, mechanical or other) may be involved. Questionable energy source problems must be resolved before job authorization is obtained and lockout and/or tagout commences.
4.4.2 Identify and list affected employees by job title and name. As defined above, an "affected employee" is one "whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout and/or tagout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed."
4.4.3 Where stored or residual energy (such as that in capacitors, springs, elevated machine members, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems, and air, gas, steam, or water pressure, etc.) may be encountered, identify and document such type(s) of stored or residual energy, and identify and document appropriate methods of dissipating or restraining such energy (e.g., by methods such as grounding, repositioning, blocking, bleeding down, etc.).
4.4.4 Sequence of Lockout and/or Tagout System Procedure:
- Notify all affected employees that a lockout and/or tagout system is going to be utilized and the reason therefore. Notification must be in such a manner as to ensure that each affected employee has actual notice of the implementation of lockout and/or tagout (e.g., in person or telephonic notification), and notification should be documented.
- The authorized employee(s) shall identify the type and magnitude of energy that the machinery or equipment utilizes, shall understand the hazards of the energy, and shall know the methods to control the energy. The authorized employee should document the type and magnitude of energy, its hazards, and the methods of control.
- If the machinery or equipment is operating, the authorized employee shall shut it down by the normal stopping procedures by depressing the stop button, opening the toggle switch, etc.
- The authorized employee shall operate the switch, valve or other energy isolating device(s) so that the machinery or equipment is blocked or isolated from its energy sources
- Lockout and/or tagout the energy isolating device(s) with assigned individual locks and/or tags. If the machinery or equipment cannot be locked out, use a tag only. The identity of the employee applying the lockout device shall be indicated on the device.
- Stored or residual energy that may be contained in springs, elevator machine members, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems, and air, gas, steam, or water pressure, etc. must also be dissipated or restrained by methods such as grounding, repositioning, blocking, bleeding down, etc.
- After ensuring that no personnel are exposed, and as a check on having disconnected the machinery or equipment from the energy sources, operate the push button or other normal operating controls to make certain the machinery or equipment will not operate. Document the method of verifying the isolation of the equipment from the energy source(s).
- RETURN THE OPERATING CONTROLS TO THE ANEUTRAL@ OR AOFF@ POSITION AFTER THE TEST.
- The equipment is now locked out and/or tagged out.
4.5 Restoring Machinery or Equipment to Normal Operations
- After servicing and/or maintenance is completed and the machinery or equipment is ready for normal operations, check the machinery or equipment and the area around the machinery to ensure that nonessential items have been removed from the machinery or equipment, guards have been reinstalled, and machine or equipment components are operationally intact.
- Check the work area to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed from the area.
- Verify that the controls are in the neutral position.
- Remove the lockout and/or tagout devices and re-energize the machinery or equipment. The removal of some forms of blocking may require re-energization of machinery or equipment before safe removal.
- Notify affected employees that the servicing or maintenance of machinery or equipment is completed and that the machinery or equipment is ready for use.
4.6 Lockout and/or Tagout Procedures Involving More Than One Person/Group Lockout, Tagout Procedures
4.6.1 When servicing and/or maintenance is performed by a crew, craft, department or other group, they shall utilize a procedure which affords the employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout and/or tagout device, as described above.
4.6.2 Group lockout and tagout devices shall be used in accordance with the above-described procedures for implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device, including, but not necessarily limited to, the following specific requirements:
- Primary responsibility is vested in an authorized employee for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device (such as an operations lock);
- An authorized employee must ascertain the exposure status of individual group members with regard to the lockout and/or tagout of the machine or equipment;
- When more than one crew, craft, department, etc. is involved, assignment of overall job-associated lockout and/or tagout control responsibility is given to an authorized employee designated to coordinate affected work forces and ensure continuity of protection; and
- Each authorized employee shall affix a personal lockout and/or tagout device to the group lockout device, group lockbox, or comparable mechanism when he or she begins work, and shall remove those devices when he or she stops working on the machine or equipment being serviced or maintained.
4.7 Lockout and/or Tagout Procedures Involving Shift or Personnel Changes
4.7.1 Specific procedures shall be utilized during shift or personnel changes to ensure the continuity of Lockout and/or Tagout use on machinery or equipment, including provisions for the orderly transfer of Lockout and/or Tagout devices between employees leaving the worksite and replacement employees in order to minimize exposure to hazards from the unexpected energization or start-up of machinery or equipment, or the release of stored energy.
4.8 Emergency Removal of Personal Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) Device(s)
4.8.1 If a personal lockout/tagout (LO/TO) device(s) is to be removed from a locked out or tagged out machine(s) or equipment(s) and the authorized employee(s) is not on site, this procedure is to be followed.
4.8.2 The Supervisor and Crew Leader or Lead Worker must agree that the removal is required. The potential consequences of operating the equipment, both to personnel and the equipment shall be considered in the decision.
4.8.3 If it is decided the LO/TO device(s) must be removed, the Supervisor or his/her designee, shall attempt to make contact with the authorized employee(s) to have the LO/TO device(s) removed. If practical, the employee(s) shall return to the site and personally remove his/her LO/TO device(s).
4.8.4 If the authorized employee(s) whose LO/TO device(s) is to be removed can not be contacted or can not return to the site, it is imperative that every effort be made to assure no one will be put in danger by removing or cutting off the LO/TO device(s)off. The decision to remove or cut the LO/TO device(s) must be made by the employeeâs(sâ) Supervisor or higher ranking member of the Department.
4.8.5 An "EMERGENCY LOCKOUT/TAGOUT (LO/TO) DEVICE(S) REMOVAL FORM" (See Appendix B) must be completed and signed by the Supervisor. The form serves to document the incident and also serves as a checklist for the LO/TO device(s) removal procedure. A copy of the form will be forwarded to the employee's(s') Department head and to the Occupational Safety and Health Office for review and retention.
4.8.6 The employee(s) whose LO/TO device(s) was removed shall be immediately notified by their Supervisor of the emergency LO/TO device(s) removal upon his/her return to work.
4.9 Annual Lockout and/or Tagout Procedure Review (Inspections)
4.9.1 At least annually, the University will conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure to ensure that the procedure and the requirements of the governing standard are being followed. This inspection shall consist of an authorized employee observing the implementation or utilization of an energy control procedure, and shall be conducted for the purpose of identifying and correcting any deviations or inadequacies identified.
4.9.2 The periodic inspection shall be performed by an authorized employee other than the ones(s) utilizing the energy control procedure being inspected.
4.9.3 Where lockout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected.
4.9.4 Where tagout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized and affected employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected, and employee awareness of the following limitations of tags:
- Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices, and do not provide the physical restraint on those devices that is provided by a lock.
- When a tag is attached to an energy isolating means, it is not to be removed without authorization of the authorized person responsible for it, and it is never to be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated.
- Tags must be legible and understandable by all authorized employees, affected employees, and all other employees whose work operations are or may be in the area, in order to be effective.
- Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials which will withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace.
- Tags may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall energy control program.
- Tags must be securely attached to energy isolating devices so that they cannot be inadvertently or accidentally detached during use.
4.9.5 The University will certify that the annual inspections have been performed by an authorized employee and the Annual Review shall identify:
- The machine or equipment on which the energy control procedure was being utilized;
- The location of the equipment;
- The nature of the lockout and/or tagout procedure observed;
- The date and time of the inspection;
- The employees included in the inspection;
- The person performing the inspection;
- Inspection findings;
- Any deviations or inadequacies observed;
- Recommendations for corrective action; and Corrective action taken.
4.9.6 The department head shall ensure that these annual inspections occur within his or her department. A record of the inspection will be maintained in the department. The "LOCKOUT/TAGOUT ANNUAL REVIEW CHECKLIST" (See Appendix C) shall be used to document this inspection.
4.10.1 All outside servicing personnel (e.g., outside contractors) must comply with all applicable lockout/tagout standards or requirements
4.10.2 Whenever outside servicing personnel (e.g., outside contractors) are to be engaged in activities covered by the scope and application of these procedures, the University and the outside employer shall inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout procedures.
4.10.3 The University shall ensure that its employees understand and comply with the restrictions and prohibitions of the outside employer's energy control program.
4.10.4 If you need additional information or have questions concerning these procedures, contact your supervisor or the Occupational Safety and Health Office at Ext. 4007.
5 Additional References
- Supervisor's Lockout and/or Tagout Safety Checklist
- Emergency Lockout/Tagout (LO/TO) Device(s) Removal Form
- Lockout-Tagout Annual Review Checklist
7 Contact Information
8 Original Effective Date
- September 5, 2008